Airblast101 – 2nd Edition

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Thank you for your interest in Airblast101 – Your Guide to Effective and Efficient Spraying. The book began in 2010 as a classroom-based workshop for Ontario’s airblast sprayer operators. It was intended as a primer and decision-support tool for operators to become safer, more effective and more efficient.

After several prior iterations, the first textbook edition was made freely available in 2015 as an ePub, or at cost in hard copy. It won the 2016 Canadian Agri-Marketing Association’s “Certificate of Merit” in the Special Publications Category. Well over a thousand copies have been circulated worldwide… but it was never really intended for an international audience.

And so, in late 2019, US sprayer specialist Mark Ledebuhr (Application Insight LLC) and NZ sprayer specialist Dr. David Manktelow (Applied Research and Technologies Ltd.) kindly agreed to co-author a second edition. Once completed, it will once again be freely available in English and French as an ePub, or at cost via print-on-demand publishing.

Why a second edition?

The familiar “Airblast 101” title is, perhaps, no longer accurate. The original emphasis was on the classic, low profile radial design developed in the 1940’s when it was recognized that pushing spray with air gave better coverage with less water. These sprayers continue to dominate in specialty crops around the world because they are simple, economical, and can operate effectively across a wide range of canopy forms and planting geometries.

But, air-assist sprayer design has evolved and diversified. With this new edition we’ve broadened the scope to include all air-assist sprayers. We hope to introduce you to equipment and practices you may never have personally encountered. We will also give you the tools to assess their relevance to your operation. This required a deeper dive into the physics of spraying, but we’ve kept the tone conversational and relied heavily on illustration to make concepts accessible.

The new edition continues to focus on three central themes:

  1. Understanding the forces that influence air and spray droplet behaviour.
  2. How to configure a sprayer to optimize coverage and minimize waste.
  3. How to diagnose spray coverage.

So, perhaps you’re new to air-assist spraying and deciding which sprayer is right for your operation. Perhaps you’re an experienced operator re-evaluating your practices. Maybe you’re a farm manager, a government pesticide regulator, an agricultural extension specialist, an equipment manufacturer, a consultant, an agrichemical sales representative or a researcher. No matter your perspective, if you’re interested in air-assisted spraying, the new edition will have something for you.

Please check back. We will continue to update the publication’s progress on this webpage. We anticipate availability by the end of 2020.

Who is Turbulent Eddy?


  • August 22, 2020: 18 of 21 chapters and 3 of 4 appendices complete.
  • September 1, 2020: >200 jpgs and unique illustrations uploaded to the publisher for layout and conversion.
  • September 3, 2020: Chapters 1-5 uploaded to the publisher for editing and layout.
    • Chapter 1: The six elements of spraying
    • Chapter 2: What is an air-assist sprayer?
    • Chapter 3: How air behaves
    • Chapter 4: Air handling systems
    • Chapter 5: Liquid handling systems
  • September 4, 2020: Acknowledgements and prologue uploaded to the publisher for editing and layout.
  • September 11, 2020: Chapter 6 uploaded to publisher for editing and layout.
    • Chapter 6: Atomization systems and droplet size
  • September 17, 2020: Appendices 1,2,3 and 4 written and uploaded to publisher for editing and layout.
    • Appendix 1: Sizing a pump
    • Appendix 2: Rate controllers
    • Appendix 3: Product rate calculations
    • Appendix 4: Electrostatics
  • September 20, 2020: Chapters 8-10 uploaded to publisher for editing and layout.
    • Chapter 8: Spraying strategy
    • Chapter 9: Measuring sprayer air
    • Chapter 10: The ribbon test
  • September 28, 2020: Chapter 7 written and with chapter 14 uploaded to publisher for editing and layout.
    • Chapter 7: Canopy
    • Chapter 14: Reconciling rate and coverage
  • October 4, 2020: Manuscript peer reviewed (save final chapter).
  • October 10, 2020: Chapters 11, 12, and 13 uploaded to publisher for editing and layout.
    • Chapter 11: Configuring sprayer air
    • Chapter 12: Transfer efficiency
    • Chapter 13: Canopy deposition
  • October 12, 2020: Chapter 21 drafted.
  • October 16, 2020: Chapters 15, 16 and 17 uploaded to publishers for editing and layout.
    • Chapter 15: Assessing coverage
    • Chapter 16: Calibration
    • Chapter 17: About hydraulic nozzles
  • October 17, 2020: Chapters 18, 19, 20, and 21 uploaded to publishers for editing and layout.
    • Chapter 18: Loading and mixing
    • Chapter 19: Sprayer sanitization
    • Chapter 20: Start-up and storage
    • Chapter 21: Stewardship